One of 88 constellations defined by the Astronomical Union is the Gemini constellation. It is a group of galaxies and stars visible in winter and autumn in the northern and southern hemisphere. Two long spurs form the Gemini constellation, which is connected at one end by the stars Castor and Pollux, and the other end splits again into four short spurs. The constellation has four major stars that are visible to the human eye: Wasat, Alhena, Pollux and Castor.
The name of the Gemini constellation is of Greek origin. However, the stars that formed twins as constellations under different but similar names and symbols have been identified by other cultures in the Middle East and further afield on the Indian subcontinent. One can not say with certainty that the ancient Greeks knew more about stars and their positions, although it is safe to say that in modern times Greek names continue to be used for the constellations.
More than 6,000 years ago, the Rigveda, the religious and historical Indian text, mentions the two main stars of the twin star images that appear early in the morning as twin riders. They were part of the Ashvins known as Sahadeva and Nakula. During this time, the two stars were visible only at dawn at dawn. This led to the idea that they were twins related to the spring equinox. The two riders were related to the two stars, commonly known as Castor and Pollux. Mithuna is the Sanskrit name, which means that the twins are almost in line with the modern Gemini constellation.
The constellation extends from India to the west to the ancient civilizations of the Middle East. The ancient Babylonian people adopted the constellations 5,000 years ago for their own astronomy. They used it for navigation and to track the seasons. Twins were known by the name Mastabba Galgal. It is believed that this is the translation for the great twins and heroes whose names were Gilgamesh and Enkidu. They fought with the gods in a series of epic battles to gain immortality.
The twin stars were adopted by the ancient Egyptians as an important part of their astronomy. They used two goats to symbolize the two stars mentioned in the Ramissede Hour Charts. This is a method of determining the time at any given time of the night when the stars followed each other. It was known that these two constellations of the twins rise at dawn.
The ancient Greek society was in the 1st millennium BC. In her ascent. However, most of the ideas put forward by Greek astronomers were not unique in the history of the twins. Many Greek constellations came directly from Babylonian astronomy, although legends about the origin of the constellation were inspired by Greek mythology. In particular, the Gemini constellation was believed to be the immortal twins named Castor and Polydeuces.
In Roman times Castor and Polydeuces were known as Pollux. They were twins born to Queen Leda of Sparta, the wife of King Tyndareus. The Greeks believe that Castor and Polydeuces, along with their two sisters, Helen and Clytaemnestra, were conceived the same night. Castor and Clytaemnestra were immortal and were the offspring of Tyndareus, while Polydeuces and Helen were the descendants of Zeus. They were therefore immortal, but no gods. The twins Castor and Polydeuces were inseparable despite different fathers.
Castor and Polydeuces had many adventures together, testing their talents. Castor had the talent for riding and archery, while Polydeuces had the talent for strength and boxing skills. All over the world, the twins were famous. They went in search of the Golden Fleece. The exact story behind the genesis of the Gemini constellation, however, refers to the tragedy of her love for two women promised to another man.
The two sisters were Phoebe and Hilaeira, the daughters of Leucippus, he was an uncle of Castor and Polydeuces. He had agreed with Aphareus that his sons Lynceus and Ida would marry the daughters. The legend does not mention the love of Aphareus's daughters for Castor and Polydeuces. In any case, they had recovered in Sparta and were married to Castor and Polydeuces, and within a short time their sons were born. The unfortunate sons of Aphareus could not leave this corpse undisputed, as is clear in all the great Greek tragedies.
Castor was attacked by Idas, who returned from a cattle raid, and killed with a spear. Later, it was struck by lightning, which Zeus hurled in anger at Castor's death. The immortal Polydeuces killed Lynceus in a fit of rage, then asked his father Zeus to let Castor live. Zeus agreed on the condition that he either return to Olympus or share his immortality with Castor between Hades and Olympus. The constellation of the twins is a picture of Castor and Polydeuces in heaven.
Regardless of the knowledge of the Gemini sign as a representative of the twin brothers Castor and Polydeuces or Castor and Pollux, as the Romans knew them. The reality is that the story is not directly related to the two heroes.
The true meaning of the story is that the eponymous stars of the boys are the first to get up early at dawn. More importantly, the two stars only rise in the spring. The twin sign occupies a special position because of its connection with rebirth and spring equinox.
Before the story of Castor and Polydeuces was told by the Greeks and Romans, other civilizations already knew about the twin stars. The twin stars were considered by the early Egyptians to be two goats returning to their goat herd at dawn, including the two stars in their Ramissede Hour Tables. It was a useful scientific timekeeping during the day.
The name of the Polydeuces was changed by the Roman legends in Pollux. All subsequent civilizations, including the golden age of the Arab caliphate, have not left the Roman name for Pollux. Since then, the Gemini constellation has taken on a single personality based on the legend that Castor and Pollux are the protectors of sailors and ships and manifest themselves as the fires of St. Elmo. In former times, the seamen called "By Gemini" because they had used their help. Today it became & # 39; By Jimmy & # 39; corrupted.
In the Gemini constellation Pollux is the brightest star. It is astronomically known as Beta Geminorum. It was announced in 1993 that Pollux, which is slightly more than 33 light-years away from the solar system, has an additional solar planet that is believed to be nearly 2.3 times larger than Jupiter. The orbital period of Pollux is 590 days. In 2006, astronomers also expected that more technological advances in telescopes and the search for other planets would verify the rocky-water planet outside the habitable zone and farther from the star.
The term alpha geminorum is also used for Castor. It is located nearly 51.6 light-years away and is an imaginary star consisting of six stars that are close together as a gravitational union. Giovanni Domenico Cassini first discovered in 1678 that Castor is a visual double star, but the truth about this riddle finally became known in the twentieth century, when astronomers identified each star as a double star, thanks to technological advances in spectroscopy. It takes 350 years for these two sets of binary stars to get pretty close. Although the third binary system orbits the four major stars from a distance, it takes 10,000 years to complete.